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Fig. 2 | Journal of Palaeogeography

Fig. 2

From: The hyperpycnite problem

Fig. 2

Concepts and examples of density plumes. a, b, and c Schematic diagrams showing three types of density variations in riverine plumes in deltaic environments based on concepts of Bates (1953). a Hypopycnal plume in which density of river water is less than density of basin water; b Homopycnal plume in which density of river water is equal to density of basin water; c Hyperpycnal plume in which density of river water is greater than density of basin water. Figure from Shanmugam (2012) with permission from Elsevier Handbook of Petroleum Exploration and Production. License Number: 4259411120776. License Date: December 31, 2017; d Image of the Mississippi River showing well-developed floating hypopycnal plumes. Note “deflecting” plumes. Black arrow shows river course for the South Pass (Walker et al., 1993). Circle shows river mouth. See Coleman and Prior (1982) for river-dominated deltaic facies model. Image credit: NASA; e Satellite image of the Yellow River showing well-developed lobate plume at the old river mouth. Image credit: NASA Earth Observatory. https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/WorldOfChange/yellow_river.php?all=y; f Satellite image of the Yellow River showing horse’s tail plume at the modern river mouth that was initiated in 1996. Two circles show old and modern river mouths. Image credit: NASA Earth Observatory. https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/WorldOfChange/yellow_river.php?all=y

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