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Fig. 29 | Journal of Palaeogeography

Fig. 29

From: The hyperpycnite problem

Fig. 29

Summary diagram showing 14 general types of plumes that include 12 marine examples and two lacustrine examples. a Lobate plume developed by a single river channel; b Coalescing lobate plume developed by multiple river channels; c Dissipating plume with an irregular front developed within a major estuary; d Linear plume developed in a braid delta e U-Turn plume developed in response to influence by ocean currents; f Meltwater plume developed from glacier; g Dust plume from eolian processes that can transport dust beyond the shelf edge; h Cascading plume developed during cyclones that tend to transport sediment (gravel, sand and mud) beyond the shelf break (Shanmugam 2008a); i Backwash plume developed during tsunamis that tend to transport sediment (gravel, sand and mud) beyond the shelf break (Shanmugam 2006b); j Whitings plume and ring plume developed in carbonate environments; k Ash plume developed during volcanic eruptions; l Tendril and swirly plumes developed in lakes. Note that with the exception of cyclones and tsunamis, none of the other plumes can transport sand and gravel to the deep sea by bedload mode. Although these different types can be recognized on modern systems using satellite or other photographic images, individual types cannot be distinguished in the ancient sedimentary record yet

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