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Fig. 3 | Journal of Palaeogeography

Fig. 3

From: The hyperpycnite problem

Fig. 3

Continental margin and flume experiments. a Conceptual diagram of a continetal margin showing relative positions of plunge point (red filled circle) at river mouth and submarine fan at base-of-slope. Average shelf width = 80 km. Maximum shelf width = 1,500 km; b Schematic diagram, based on flume experiments conducted using fresh water as standing body, showing transformation of river current into turbidity current at plunge point (red filled circle). Note that this experiment using fresh water is applicable to fresh water lakes, but not to marine settings (sea or ocean). From Kostic et al. (2002) with additional labels; c Schematic diagram with backwater zone showing transformation of river plume into turbidity currents at plunge point (red filled circle). Note the close similarity between B and C on the initiation of turbidity currents at plunge point. In this study, the term “hyperpycnal flow” is used for flows seaward of the plunge point, instead of turbidity current (see text). From Lamb et al. (2010) with additional symbols

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