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Fig. 4 | Journal of Palaeogeography

Fig. 4

From: The hyperpycnite problem

Fig. 4

Variable types of hyperpycnal flows. a Single-layer hyperpycnal flow, Yellow River, China. Color concentration = Suspended sediment concentration; h = Flow thickness; τt = Upper surface; τb = Bed shear stress. From Gao et al. (2015); b Bottom turbid layer with density and velocity stratification (i.e., debris flow with hydroplaning, red arrow added in this article, see text), Yellow River, China. Uw = Wave orbital velocity; Uc = Along shelf current magnitude; Ug = Velocity of gravity current; NWIW = Normal wind-induced wave velocity; TIW = Typhoon-induced wave. The red line represents the downslope variation trend of the bottom-turbid layer. From Gao et al. (2015) with additional labels; c Multi-layer hyperpycnal flow in numerical modeling (Morales de Luna et al. 2017). Note that multi-layer numerical modeling was also applied to hypopycnal flows. h = Height of a fluid layer; u = Velocity; ɸ = Particle concentration; ρ = Density. See Morales de Luna et al. (2017) for details of various parameters and related equations; d Tide-modulated hyperpycnal flow, Yellow River (Wang et al. 2010; modified after Wright et al. 1988), with permission from John Wiley and Sons. Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink: Licensee: G. Shanmugam. License Number: 4258840606863. License Date: December 30, 2017. Color labels by G. Shanmugam. Note internal waves. Internal waves occur only along pycnoclines (Shanmugam 2013), but there is no indication of pycnoclines in this diagram

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