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Table 1 Configurations of density plumes on satellite images in modern marine and lacustrine environments. See Shanmugam (2018b) for a comprehensive study of 45 case studies

From: The hyperpycnite problem

Serial number in Fig. 1 Case study and location Configuration of density plumes on satellite images Environment External control Comments
1 1A − Yellow River, Bohai Bay 1A − Simple lobate, associated with a single river mouth (old river mouth, 1995; Fig. 2e) River-dominated delta Tidal shear front (Wang et al. 2010) Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
1B − Yellow River, Bohai Bay 1B − Horse’s tail (Modern river mouth, 1999; Fig. 2f) River-dominated delta Tidal shear front (Wang et al. 2010) Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
2 Yangtze River, East China Sea Deflecting (Fig. 11a) Tide-dominated estuary Shelf currents (Liu et al. 2006) Vertical mixing by tides in winter months (Luo et al. 2017) Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
3 Río de la Plata Estuary, Argentina and Uruguay, South Atlantic Ocean Dissipating (Fig. 20c) Marine Ocean currents (Gonzalez-Silvera et al. 2006; Matano et al. 2010) Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
4 Guadalquivir River, Southern Spain, Gulf of Cádiz U-Turn (Fig. 22c) River-dominated delta Surace and slope currents (Peliz et al. 2009) Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
5 Strait of Gibraltar Swirly (NASA 2017) Strait mouth Ocean water moving through the strait and internal waves (Shanmugam 2013) Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
6 Chignik Lake, Alaska, Pacific Ocean Linear (Fig. 6) Braided delta in a lagoon, Pacific Ocean Coarse-grained braided delta (McPherson et al. 1987) Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
7 7A − Copper River, Gulf of Alaska 7A − Coalescing irregular, associated with multiple river mouths (Fig. 24a) Braided delta, marine Coarse-grained braided delta Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
7B − Copper River, Gulf of Alaska 7B − Blanketing eolian dust plume (Fig. 24b) Braided delta, marine Eolian Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
8 Hugli River (a distributary of the Ganges River), India, Bay of Bengal Anastomosing (Fig. 25b) Tide-dominated estuary (Balasubramanian and Ajmal Khan 2002) Tidal currents
The Bay of Bengal is known not only for severe monsoonal floods, but also for frequent cyclonic activity (Shanmugam 2008a)
Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
9 Zambezi River, Central Mozambique, Indian Ocean Coalescing lobate, associated with multiple river mouths (Fig. 23) Wave-dominated delta Longshore currents (Mikhailov et al. 2015) Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
10 Off Namibia, South Atlantic Cloudy (NASA 2017) Marine Upwelling (Plankton) (Shillington et al. 1992) Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
11 Off Namibia, South Atlantic Swirly (NASA 2017) Marine Upwelling (Hydrogen sulfide) Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
12 Gulf of Mannar, India and Sri Lanka, Indian Ocean Massive and swirly (NASA 2017) Marine Monsoonal currents (Jagadeesan et al. 2013); wave actions (Sridhar et al. 2008) Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
13 Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco Bay, Pacific Ocean Tidal lobate (Fig. 26c) Bay mouth Tidal currents (Barnard et al. 2006) Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
14 U.S. Atlantic shelf Cascading (Shanmugam 2008a) Shelf (Marine) 1999 Hurricane Floyda Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
15 Northern Gulf of Mexico Swirly (Fig. 27b) Shelf (Marine) 2009 Tropical Storm Idaa Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
16 Kalutara Beach, Sri Lanka, Arabian Sea Bakwash (Shanmugam 2006b) Marine 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunamia Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
17 Greenland, Labrador Sea Meltwater (NASA 2017) Marine Sublacial, meltwater (Chu 2014; see also Cuffey and Paterson 2010) Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
18 The Great Bahama Bank, Atlantic Ocean Whitings (NASA 2017) Marine Fish activities (Broecker et al. 2000); wind (Dierssen et al. 2009); florida current (Purkis et al. 2017) Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
19 Tagula Island, South Pacific Ocean Ring (NASA 2017) Marine Coral reef (Khanna and Yadav 2008) Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
20 Egypt, Red Sea Dust (NASA 2017) Marine Eolian Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
21 Yucatan Peninsula, Southern Gulf of Mexico Feathery (NASA 2017) Marine Complex mix of sediment and plankton Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
22 Paluweh Volcano, Indonesia, Indian Ocean Volcanic ash (NASA 2017) Marine Volcanic Interpretation of volcanic ash plume is possible.
23 Bogoslof Island, Bering Sea Volcanic ash (NASA 2017) Marine Volcanic (Shipley and Sarna-Wojcicki 1982) Interpretation of volcanic ash plume is possible.
24 Lake Michigan, USA Tendril (Fig. 28b) Lacustrine Eolian Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
25 Lake Erie, USA Swirly (Fig. 28c) Lacustrine Seiche (de Jong and Battjes 2004) Interpretation of a specific type of plume in the ancient record is impractical at present.
26 Carolina Continental Rise, North Atlantic Gas hydrate (Paull et al. 1995; see also Ruppel and Kessler 2017) Marine Pockmarked sea floor associated with active chemosynthetic biological communities Interpretation of gas hydrate plume is possible.
  1. aTransport of gravel, sand, and mud to deep-water environments by cyclone- and tsunami-related flows is possible