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Table 1 Identification marks of the hydrovolcanism and its applicable eruption types

From: Identification of hydrovolcanism and its significance for hydrocarbon reservoir assessment: A review

Identification marks Typical characteristics Analysis technology Application type Indicative environment Literature
Eruptive products Microtextures Quenching cracks Small-scale regular cracks or TS, SEM Explosive eruption Eruption environment Yu et al. 2011
Bread-crusted structure fractures resulted from TS, SEM
Stepped fractures magma−water interaction TS, SEM
Cracks through particles Long cracks caused by rapid quenching TS, SEM Yu et al. 2008; Yu 2012
Chilled margin Vitric, thick, developed in fluidal pyroclasts margin TS, CO Depositional environment Simpson and McPhie 2001
Perlitic texture An arc-shaped fissure texture similar with pearl formed from acidic lava interacted with water TS, CO Zhang et al. 2007
Grain size and its parameters Phreatomagmatic explosion: Small grain size, poor sorting, high fractal dimension TS, GS Eruption environment Cas and Wright 1987
Roundness Volcanic lapilli turned rounded resulted from multi-cycle of subaqueous volcanic vent SC, TS, OC Belousov and Belousova 2001
Quenching texture Particles with angular, shaped margins, poor sorting, few or no vesicle TS Explosive + effusive eruption Eruption or depositional environment Liu 1995; Simpson and McPhie 2001
Cementation type Lack of magma cementation, majority of welded texture TS Explosive eruption Eruption environment Simpson and McPhie 2001
Vesicularity Lack of vesicles in pyroclasts particles TS, SEM De Rita et al. 2002; Yu et al. 2011
Special structures Large-scale cross-beddings Planar-parallel bedding and low-angle cross-bedding, hummocky cross-bedding, antidune cross-bedding CO, OC Eruption environment Fisher et al. 1983; Liu and Wang 1987; Liu et al. 2008
Pillow structures Spherical structure, pillow structure lava CO, OC Effusive eruption Eruption and depositional environment Zhang et al. 2007
Lithofacies and facies associations Lithofacies Perlite Perlite, pillow perlite, two-layer perlite interbedded with non-porphyritic or less-porphyritic rhyolite TS, CO, OC Depositional environment Zhang et al. 2007; Shan et al. 2013
Peperite Peperite TS, CO, OC Skilling et al. 2002
Spilite Spilite, keratophyre and quartz-keratophyre successions   Eruption environment Yang 2000
Facies associations (from bottom to top) Effusive eruption 1) Quenching hyaloclastite; 2) Pillow breccia (autobrecciation); 3) Insular pillow lava; 4) Pillow lava; 5) Massive lava TS, CO, OC Eruption environment Liu 1995
Explosive eruption 1) Autobreccia lava; 2) Massive accretionary lapilli-bearing welded tuff; 3) Poor-welded pyroclastic rock or peperite; 4) Pyroclastic rock Petro. Explosive eruption De Rita et al. 2002; Allen and Mcphie 2009; Manville et al. 2009
Oxidation index Fe2O3/FeO < 1 — Weakly reducing environment;
Fe2O3/FeO < 0.8 — Strongly reducing environment
XRF, CM Explosive + effusive eruption Depositional environment Qiu 1985; Shan et al. 2013
Associated environment Overlying sedimentary environment 1) Shale color; 2) Sedimentary structure; 3) Fossils; 4) Organic biomarkers; 5) Geochemical parameters of trace elements (like Sr/Ba) Sed., Palaeo., ICP−MS Kokelaar and Busby 1992
Underlying sedimentary environment
  1. Analysis technology: TS Thin section, SEM Scanning electron microscope, CO Core observation, OC Outcrop, SC Stereoscope, GS Grain size analysis, XRF X-ray fluorescence, CM Chemical analysis, ICP–MS Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Abbreviation: Petro. Petrology, Sed. Sedimentology, Palaeo. Palaeontology. Indicative environments are the environment that the identification marks demonstrate or represent