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Table 1 Comparison of Scirpus weichangensis X.Q. Liang, sp. nov. with extant species

From: Fruits of Scirpus (Cyperaceae) from the early Miocene of Weichang, Hebei Province, North China and their palaeoecological and palaeobiogeographical implications

Species Shape 3-sided Length (mm) Width (mm) Surface Bristle Barbellae (μ) Reference
Fossil Obovate + 0.88 ± 0.04 0.65 ± 0.05 Net 3 Apical half This study
S. orientalis Ohwi Obovate to elliptic Compressed     5–6 + Oh and Ham 1998; Dai et al. 2010
S. radicans Schkuhr Obovate Compressed 0.9 0.5   6 Near apex Oh and Ham 1998; Pignotti and Mariotti 2004; Dai et al. 2010
S. karuisawensis Makino Oblong to obovate Compressed 1    6 Near apex Oh and Ham 1998; Pignotti and Mariotti 2004; Dai et al. 2010
S. lushanensis Ohwi Elliptic Compressed 1.5 0.5   6 Near apex Dai et al. 2010
S. wichurae Boeckeler Elliptic to obovate + 1.3    6 (silk-like) Apical half Oh and Ham 1998; Pignotti and Mariotti 2004; Dai et al. 2010
S. ternatanus Reinwardt ex Miquel Elliptic, obovate, subspherical Biconvex 0.7–1    2–3 Apical half Pignotti and Mariotti 2004; Dai et al. 2010
S. chunianus Tang & Wang Elliptic to subspherical Biconvex 1.5   Verruculose 2–3 Near apex Dai et al. 2010
S. rosthornii Diels Elliptic to subspherical Biconvex 0.6–0.7    2–3 Apical half Dai et al. 2010
S. filipes Clarke Obovate Compressed     6 + Dai et al. 2010
S. hainanensis Huang Obovate to broadly obovate + 1.5    6 Apically pubescent Dai et al. 2010
S. maximowiczii Clarke Narrowly obovate + 1.8–2 1   6 Near apex Dai et al. 2010
S. paniculatocorymbosus Kükenthal Narrowly obovate + 1.5    6   Dai et al. 2010
S. ancistrochaetu Schuyler Elliptic to obovate Plano-convex 1.1–1.7 0.6–0.8   6 In distal 0.6–0.9 Whittemore and Schuyler 2002; Pignotti and Mariotti 2004
S. atrocinctus Fernald Elliptic or obovate Plumply trigonous or plano-convex 0.7–0.9 0.4–0.5   6 (slender)   Whittemore and Schuyler 2002; Pignotti and Mariotti 2004
S. atrovirens Willdenow Elliptic or obovate Plumply trigonous or plano-convex (0.8-) 1.0–1.3 0.4–0.6   (5–) 6 In distal 0.3–0.6 Whittemore and Schuyler 2002; Pignotti and Mariotti 2004
S. congdonii Britton Obovate or elliptic Plumply trigonous or plano-convex 0.9–1.3 0.6–0.8   6 (slender) In distal 0.5 Whittemore and Schuyler 2002; Pignotti and Mariotti 2004
S. cyperinus (Linnaeus) Kunth Elliptic or obovate Plumply trigonous or plano-convex 0.6–0.9 0.3–0.5   6   Whittemore and Schuyler 2002; Pignotti and Mariotti 2004
S. diffuses Schuyler Obovate or elliptic Plano-convex 0.9–1.3 0.7–0.8   6 (slender) In distal 0.5 Whittemore and Schuyler 2002
S. divaricatus Elliott Elliptic-obovate Strongly trigonous with very strong angles and concave sides 0.8–1.0 0.6–0.8   6 In distal 0.5 Whittemore and Schuyler 2002; Pignotti and Mariotti 2004
S. expansus Fernald Oblong-elliptic to broadly elliptic or obovate Plano-convex or sometimes plumply trigonous 1.0–1.6 (0.6-) 0.8–1.0   6 Almost to base Whittemore and Schuyler 2002
S. flaccidifolius (Fernald) Schuyler Elliptic or obovate Plano-convex or plumply trigonous 1.0–1.2 0.4–0.6   6 (slender) In distal 0.2–0.5 Whittemore and Schuyler 2002; Pignotti and Mariotti 2004
S. georgianus Harper Elliptic or obovate Plumply trigonous or plano-convex 0.6–1.2 0.4–0.5   0–3   Whittemore and Schuyler 2002; Pignotti and Mariotti 2004
S. hattorianus Makino Elliptic or obovate Plumply trigonous (0.6-) 0.7–1.1 0.3–0.5   (4-) 5–6 In distal (0.1–) 0.2–0.4 Whittemore and Schuyler 2002; Pignotti and Mariotti 2004
S. lineatus Michaux Elliptic Plano-convex or plumply trigonous 0.1–1.5 0.6–0.7   6 (slender)   Whittemore and Schuyler 2002; Pignotti and Mariotti 2004
S. longii Fernald Elliptic or obovate Plano-convex or plumply trigonous 0.7–1.0 0.4–0.5   6 (slender)   Whittemore and Schuyler 2002
S. microcarpus Presl & Presl Ovate to obovate Biconvex to plano-convex 0.7–1.6 0.8–1.0   (3-) 4 (−6) Arranged almost to base Whittemore and Schuyler 2002; Pignotti and Mariotti 2004
S. pallidus (Britton) Fernald Oblong-elliptic to elliptic or obovate Plumply trigonous or plano-convex 0.8–1.2 0.4–0.6   6 In distal 0.3–0.5 Whittemore and Schuyler 2002; Pignotti and Mariotti 2004
S. pedicellatus Fernald Elliptic or obovate Plumply trigonous or plano-convex 0.7–0.9 0.4–0.5   6   Whittemore and Schuyler 2002
S. pendulus Muhlenberg Elliptic Plano-convex or plumply trigonous 1.0–1.2 0.6–0.8   6   Whittemore and Schuyler 2002; Pignotti and Mariotti 2004
S. polyphyllus Vahl Obovate or nearly obtriangular Plumply trigonous or plano-convex 1.1–1.4(−1.8) 0.8–1.0   6 In distal 1/2 Whittemore and Schuyler 2002; Pignotti and Mariotti 2004
S. polystachyus Muell. Ellipsoid to obovoid Plano-convex or with a distinct dorsal angle 1.2–1.5 0.6–0.8   Many, filiform   Healy and Edgar 1980; Wilson 1994