Skip to main content

Table 1 Lithofacies associations distinguished for the Pliocene-Pleistocene record in the northern sector of the Teruel Basin

From: Alluvial sedimentation and tectono-stratigraphic evolution in a narrow extensional zigzag basin margin (northern Teruel Basin, Spain)

Lithofacies association Lithology Texture Geometry and sedimentary structures Interpretation
Conglomerate (C) Conglomerate (90%–100%) Clast or matrix supported textures and subangular to subrounded carbonate and siliceous cobbles to boulders. Local outsized clasts. Fine sandy or muddy matrix, the later in matrix-supported, coarsening-upwards, bodies. Tabular bodies and rare channelled bases. Clast supported deposits with internal irregular surfaces, horizontal- bedding, and rare trough cross-bedding. Alluvial fan-proximal sector dominated by flash floods and debris flows. During waning discharges some channels with longitudinal bars developed; overbank areas poorly preserved.
Sandstone (0–10%) Coarse-grained with polygenic pebbles and cobbles. Decimetric tabular or irregular bodies with trough cross-bedding and cross lamination.
Mudstone (0–10%) Massive with disperse polygenic pebbles and cobbles. Decimetric tabular or irregular bodies.
Conglomerate and Sandstone (CS) Conglomerate (50%–60%) Clast-supported subangular to rounded carbonate and siliceous pebbles and cobbles with fine to medium-grained sandy matrix. Tabular or channelled bodies with horizontal and trough cross-bedding. Common fining-upwards cycles. Alluvial fan-middle sector with channelled, sometimes unconfined flows and gravel bars. Sandstones represent deposition during waning water discharges and root traces non-sedimentation episodes.
Sandstone (40%–50%) Coarse to medium-grained sandstone with disperse pebbles and cobbles. Decimetric-metric tabular or channelled bodies with trough cross-bedding and rare root traces and carbonate nodules.
Conglomerate and Mudstone (CM) Conglomerate (70%–90%) Clast-supported subrounded to rounded carbonate and siliceous pebbles and cobbles with fine to medium-grained sandy matrix. Channels with gently channelled internal surfaces and trough, and less common, planar cross-bedding. Some tabular beds. Alluvial fan-middle sector with straight multiepisodic channels commonly overflooded. Well-developed overbank areas that prevented channel migration.
Mudstone (10%–30%) Massive with rare dispersed pebbles and cobbles. Decimetric tabular bodies with common root traces.
Sandstone (0–10%) Medium-grained sandstones with disperse pebbles and cobbles. Mainly decimetriic tabular bodies.
Mudstone (M) Mudstone (70%–100%) Massive or bioturbated. Metric tabular bodies. Alluvial fan-distal sector mudflat areas fed by unconfined water flows and episodically reached by isolated shallow channels. Near-surface water level favoured pedogenic processes and soils but local freshwater ponds also existed.
Palaeosol (0–30%) Carbonate palaeosols with prismatic and rare nodular structure. Disperse carbonate or siliceous pebbles. Decimetric-metric tabular bodies.
Limestone (0–10%) Massive, bioturbated or brecciated mudstone-wackestone with common gastropods. Decimetric tabular bodies.
Conglomerate (0–5%) Clast-supported rounded polygenic pebbles with very fine sandy matrix. Decimetric poorly channelled or tabular bodies with occasional irregular internal surfaces.
Limestone and Marl (LM) Limestone (30%–60%) Massive, bioturbated or brecciated mudstone-packstone with gastropods, ostracods, charophytes and vegetal remains. Rare coal layers. Decimetric-metric tabular, irregular or slightly lenticular bodies with occasional symmetric ripples. Shallow lacustrine-palustrine areas with alternating episodes of carbonate precipitation and detrital deposition. Marginal exposed areas with rooted vegetation. Frequent water-level oscillations.
Marl (40%–70%) Massive or laminated with common gastropods and spherical carbonate nodules. Decimetric-metric tabular or irregular bodies.
Mudstone (0–10%) Massive. Decimetric tabular bodies.