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Fig. 3 | Journal of Palaeogeography

Fig. 3

From: Reply to discussions by Zavala (2019) and by Van Loon, Hüeneke, and Mulder (2019) on Shanmugam, G. (2018, Journal of Palaeogeography, 7 (3): 197–238): ‘the hyperpycnite problem’

Fig. 3

a Plot of sediment concentration for different flow types. Note that a typical turbidity current can exist only in sediment concentration less than 9% by volume (Bagnold 1962). Note overlap in sediment concentration among low-density, turbidity currents, high-density turbidity currents, and hyper-concentrated flows. This confusion has never been resolved. Zavala does not address these basic issues. Modified after Shanmugam (1996). Reproduced with permission from SEPM; b Experimental stratified flows with a basal laminar-inertia flow and an upper (turbulent) turbidity current that have been termed as “high-density turbidity currents.” Note clasts near the top of sandy debris flows along the rheological interface. Compare with Fig. 4. Figure from Postma et al. (1988) with permission from Elsevier Sedimentary Geology. Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink: Licensee: G. Shanmugam. License Number: 4645450668368. License Date: August 10, 2019

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