Skip to main content

Palaeogeographic reconstruction of a fluvio-marine transitional system in Narmada rift basin, India — Implications on Late Cretaceous global sea-level rise

Abstract

Rising sea-levels in tectonically active epicontinental basins often lead to varied depositional settings and palaeogeography, mostly influenced by the net accommodation resulting from mutual interference of the extent and nature of landward encroachment by the sea and the net sedimentation. The Cenomanian Nimar Sandstone Formation, Bagh Group, Narmada rift basin, uniquely portrays the effect of sea-level rise within an intra-cratonic setting and attributes to the corresponding palaeogeographic changes in west-central India. An integrated sedimentological–sequence-stratigraphic study of the broadly fining-upward Nimar Sandstone Formation (thickness ~ 20–30 m) depicts the actual nature of changeover from a fluvial to a marine-dominated transitional depositional setting. Detailed sedimentological study reveals total seventeen facies, grouped in five facies associations, viz., the channel-fill facies association (FA-1), the overbank facies association (FA-2), the fluvial-dominated fluvio-tidal facies association (FA-3), the tide-dominated fluvio-tidal facies association (FA-4), and the shoreface facies association (FA-5). Overall facies architecture indicates a west-to-eastward marine encroachment, resulting in stacking of three distinct palaeo-depositional conditions: (i) an initial fluvial system with channel and overbank, changing into a tide-influenced fluvial bay-head delta in the inner estuary, followed by (ii) marine encroachment leading to a tide-dominated central estuary with inter- to sub-tidal settings, and finally, (iii) with further intense marine encroachments, a wave-reworked open shore condition in the outer estuary zone. The overall fining-up succession with a systematic change from fluvial to marine-dominated depositional systems points to a landward shift of the shoreline, signifying a major transgressive event correlated to the Cenomanian global sea-level rise. Characteristic stratal stacking patterns point to four coarsening- and fining-up hemicycles, embedded within the major transgressive succession. These high-frequency cycles attest to the varied interplay of sedimentation, tectonics and sea-level changes, and the resultant net accommodations. A palaeogeographic model is proposed based on the high-frequency transgressive–regressive hemicycles, which envisages the evolution of the depositional environments in relation to the Cenomanian eustatic rise in the intra-cratonic riftogenic fluvio-marine transitional basinal setup.

Introduction

The Late Cretaceous time interval is known for intense tectonic activities and significant changes in climatic conditions (Miller et al. 2005; Sames et al. 2016) accompanied by prolonged sea-level rises, leading to worldwide inundations of landmasses (Hancock and Kauffman 1979; Förster et al. 1983; Hilbrecht et al. 1986; Haq et al. 1987; Hallam 1992; Röper and Rothgaenger 1995; Miller et al. 2005; Haq 2014). Several parts of different continents were affected by transgressions during the Late Cretaceous time, including parts of Arctic Canada, Russia, western Europe, eastern Australia, parts of Africa, South America, India, Madagascar, and Borneo. Most of the subcontinents of the supercontinent Gondwanaland were fully or partially submerged at different time intervals during the Late Cretaceous, which led to the formation of shallow epicontinental seas in certain areas. Evidence of Cretaceous sea-level rise in the Indian subcontinent is recorded within thick sedimentary successions of the Cauvery Basin (Nagendra et al. 2011, 2013), Shillong Basin (Singh and Mishra 2000), Kutch Basin (Desai 2013), Bengal-Assam Basin, parts of the Himalayan fold belt, and the Narmada rift basin in west-central India (Acharya and Lahiri 1991; Banerjee et al. 2020).

Such global eustatic changes generally manifest 1st–2nd order sea-level cycles affecting most of the continents, which allow for their successful correlations. However, associated higher-frequency cycles (3rd order, 4th order and beyond), included in the 2nd order cycles, mostly depend on changes in relative sea-level and net accommodation caused by basin-scale tectonism, sedimentations and/or climatic/orbital forcings (Vail et al. 1991; Gale et al. 2002; Haq 2014; Bhattacharya and Bhattacharya 2015). The Cenomanian Stage (98.9–93.5 Ma) provides a suitable window to study such changes, as high-resolution global correlations (100–400 kyr) in terms of sea-level changes and orbital cycles from marine successions revealed five major/minor eustatic events (KCe-1 to KCe-5 of Haq 2014). However, doubt persists regarding actual nature and effect of transgressions in shallow marine and continent–margin transitional depositional areas, and the role of climatic forcings, tectonism, and sedimentation in controlling palaeogeography and shaping resultant stratal stacking patterns (Bhattacharya et al. 2018). High-resolution sequence-stratigraphic study backed by detailed sedimentary facies analysis is useful to understand the appropriate transitional relationship between fluvial and marine processes in terms of major transgressive–regressive cycles in response to tectono-eustatic changes in such basins (Bhattacharya et al. 2018; Jaiswal et al. 2018).

History of sea-level fluctuations during the Cenomanian time in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent (Cauvery Basin) was documented by Sundaram et al. (2001), Skelton (2003), and Gale et al. (2002). However, the effects may vary significantly in fluvio-marine interactive systems depending on the prevalent tectono-sedimentary equilibrium. Though attempts to understand the nature of the transition between fluvial and marine depositional systems are plenty in the literature (Dalrymple et al. 1992; Greb and Martino 2005; Dalrymple and Choi 2007; van den Berg et al. 2007; Bhattacharya et al. 2012; Bhattacharya and Banerjee 2015; Bhattacharya and Bhattacharya 2015; Bhattacharya et al. 2018; Richards and Bhattacharya 2018; Gugliotta et al. 2019; and references therein), gaps persist in the actual perception of basin-scale facies architecture and stratal stacking pattern related to characteristic tectono-sedimentary attributes in shallow epicontinental basins.

The Nimar Sandstone (Cenomanian) Formation, the lowermost litho-unit within the Bagh Group (Late Cretaceous), bears signatures of the contemporary global sea-level rise in west-central India (Jha et al. 2017). Signatures of the Late Cretaceous marine transgression in the Bagh Group are evident and agreed well in terms of different proxies such as sedimentary attributes, palaeontological data, ichnological data, micropalaeontological data and palaeobotanical data (Murty et al. 1963; Chiplonkar and Ghare 1975; Raiverman 1975; Badve and Ghare 1980; Singh and Srivastava 1981; Jafar 1982; Bose and Das 1986; Ganguly and Bardhan 1993; Sanganwar and Kundal 1997; Khosla et al. 2003; Smith 2010; Jaitly and Ajane 2013; Bhattacharya and Jha 2014; Jha et al. 2017; Bansal et al. 2019; and many others). But, a comprehensive sequence stratigraphic model enumerating the actual nature of coastal onlap and the fluvial-marine interaction has not been attempted and is long overdue. The objective of the present paper is to document the palaeogeographic changes under the fluvio-marine interactive depositional system in the light of high-frequency transgressive–regressive (T–R) cycles. The proposed model will help to understand the effects of higher-frequency sea-level fluctuations in fluvio-marine transitional systems within a global eustatic rise condition.

Geological setting

The deposition of the Bagh Group (Late Cretaceous) was started within the Narmada rift basin during the Cenomanian time, directly overlying the Proterozoic Bijawar Group. The Bagh Group is constituted of three litho-units (formations), namely, the lowermost Cenomanian Nimar Sandstone Formation, followed by the Turonian Nodular Limestone Formation, and Coniacian Coralline Limestone Formation at the top (Table 1). In the Narmada rift basin, the Bagh Group is overlain by the Lameta Formation and the Deccan Traps, both of Late Cretaceous age. The presence of various sedimentary facies, ichnofabrics, and varied palaeontological attributes within the Bagh Group manifests distinct changes in the depositional environment. The rocks are exposed along the northern flank of the Narmada rift basin and occur in patches (Fig. 1). Rocks of the Nimar Sandstone Formation are well exposed in several sections including the Man River near Awaldaman, Sitapuri, Bagh River, Rampura, Bagh Cave, Jobat, and other areas (detail of locations is given in Fig. 1). The Nimar Sandstone Formation is characterized by conglomerate, arenaceous to arkosic sandstone, sandstone–mudstone heteroliths, and mudstone. In the study area, the general strike of beds is N15°E–S15°W to N–S with a dip of 8°–10°. The depositional age of the Nimar Sandstone Formation is considered as Cenomanian (Jaitly and Ajane 2013), which has been determined mostly based on biostratigraphic records preserved in the upper part of the succession (Table 2). However, data depicting the absolute age of deposition of the Nimar Sandstone Formation is lacking till date.

Table 1 Generalized lithostratigraphy of the study area (modified after Singh and Srivastava 1981; Jaitly and Ajane 2013)
Fig. 1
figure1

a Map of India showing location of the Narmada rift basin; b Geological map of the study area (modified after Jaitly and Ajane 2013), showing distribution of the Bagh Group. Black points marked with numbers (1–15) indicate locations/areas of exposed rock sections from where respective vertical sedimentary lithologs were prepared: 1–Phata; 2–Ghoda; 3–Chikapoti; 4–Dhursal; 5–Akhara; 6–Rampura; 7–Baghini Temple; 8–Bagh; 9–Neemkheda; 10–Dam; 11–Raisinghpura; 12–Ratitalai; 13–Baria; 14–Man River; 15–Sitapuri

Table 2 Inferred depositional age of the Nimar Sandstone Formation based on biostratigraphic studies

Material and methods

Unmetamorphosed, undeformed siliciclastic rocks of the Nimar Sandstone Formation are well exposed in and around the Bagh area (Fig. 1) in the western part of the state of Madhya Pradesh, central India. Well-exposed, long sections are available in the field for detailed sedimentological study. Altogether 15 sections were studied, distributed in three zones in the study area: (i) Awaldaman, Ratitalai, Sitapuri, Baria, etc. in the eastern part, (ii) Bagh, Rampura, Raisinghpura, etc. in the central part, and (iii) Chikapoti, Akhara, Phata, Ghoda, etc. in the western part.

The sedimentological study is primarily based on (i) facies analysis, which includes descriptions and interpretations of facies types and facies associations in the frame of prevalent process-response models and mechanisms of deposition, and (ii) preparation of lithologs from different parts and their correlation to understand the spatio-temporal distribution of different facies types and the depositional conditions.

The sequence-stratigraphic study is primarily based on the identification and interpretation of different stratal stacking patterns, viz., coarsening-up (progradational) and fining-up (retrogradational), in the correlated sections, followed by the interpretation of sediment packages (cycles) of different frequencies.

Results

Sedimentological facies architecture

Sedimentologically, the siliciclastic succession of the Nimar Sandstone Formation (average ~ 20–30 m thick) is represented by seventeen facies types grouped in five distinct facies associations (FA-1–FA-5). Brief descriptions and interpretations of the facies types in different facies associations are depicted in Tables 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, respectively. Representative photographs of the facies types of different facies associations (FA-1–FA-5) are represented in Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, respectively.

Table 3 Brief descriptions and interpretations of the facies types within the channel-fill facies association (FA-1)
Table 4 Brief descriptions and interpretations of facies types within the overbank facies association (FA-2)
Table 5 Brief descriptions and interpretation of facies types within the fluvial-dominated fluvio-tidal facies association (FA-3)
Table 6 Brief descriptions and interpretation of facies types under the tide-dominated fluvio-tidal facies association (FA-4)
Table 7 Brief descriptions and interpretation of facies types under the shoreface facies association (FA-5)
Fig. 2
figure2

Field photographs. a Clast-supported conglomerate (facies 1A) showing angular to sub-angular clasts of basement gneissic rock, exposed in the Rampura section. Length of pen is 14.5 cm. b Matrix-supported conglomerate (facies 1B), exposed in Bagh section. Arrows indicate occurrence of mud clasts. Diameter of coin is 2.5 cm. c Pebbly sandstone (facies 1C) showing alternate pebble-rich and pebble-free sandstone beds, exposed in the Neemkheda section. Length of pen is 15 cm. d Trough cross-stratified sandstone (facies 1D), exposed along the river bank of Baria section. Length of hammer is 30.5 cm

Fig. 3
figure3

a Field photograph of interbedded sandstone–mudstone (facies 2A), near Raisinghpura. b Field photograph of the plane-laminated sandstone (facies 2B), Man River section. Length of pen is 14.5 cm. c Cross-section of the plane-laminated sandstone facies showing well-developed plane beds. Length of pen is 15 cm

Fig. 4
figure4

a Field photographs of large-scale trough cross-stratified sandstone (facies 3A) along the western bank of the Man River section. Arrows show lateral accretion surfaces. b Field photograph of planar cross-stratified sandstone (facies 3B), Man River section. Length of hammer is 30.5 cm

Fig. 5
figure5

Field photographs. a Heterolithic sandstone–mudstone (facies 4A) showing presence of mud drapes and poorly-developed bi-directional cross-strata, Man River section. The arrows indicate apparent orientation of the foresets in adjacent cross-strata sets. Diameter of coin is 2.5 cm. b Interference ripples with bifurcation of crest line (yellow arrows) on the sandstone bedding surface of facies 4A, Man River section. Length of pen (encircled) is 14.5 cm. c Lenticular and wavy bedding developed within facies 4A, preserved in Bagh Cave. d Inclined heterolithic strata developed within facies 4A, Man River section. e Mud-clast-bearing conglomerate (facies 4B) showing angular mud clasts (arrows), Man River section. Length of pen is 14.5 cm. f Plane-laminated sandstone (facies 4C), Ratitalai section. Length of the pen is 14.5 cm. g Bioturbated sandstone (facies 4D), Akhara section. Diameter of coin is 2.5 cm. h Green sandstone facies (4E), exposed in Ghoda area. Length of hammer is 30.5 cm

Fig. 6
figure6

Field photographs. a Fossil-bearing sandstone (facies 5A) showing gastropod (G) and bivalve shells (B) on sandstone bedding plane, near Akhara. Length of pen is 14.5 cm. b Ostrea shells in facies 5A, occurring near the Bagh–Akhara road. Diameter of coin is 2.5 cm. c Symmetrical flat-topped wave ripples with small-scale ladder-back ripples in facies 5A, preserved near Akhara. Length of pen is 14.5 cm. d ThalassinoidesOphiomorpha-bearing thinly-laminated sandstone–mudstone (facies 5B) showing well-preserved vertical burrows (arrows). The section is exposed near Sitapuri. Length of hammer is 30.5 cm. e Wave-ripple-bearing sandstone (facies 5C) showing symmetrical wave ripples with bifurcating crests (arrows), exposed in the Dam section. Length of pen is 14.5 cm. f Massive mudstone (facies 5D) overlain by white-coloured Nodular Limestone Formation, north of Sitapuri. The contact is marked by dashed yellow line. Man for scale is 170 cm tall

Facies association FA-1 (Fig. 2) consists of four facies types, viz., the clast-supported conglomerate (facies 1A), the matrix-supported conglomerate (facies 1B), the pebbly sandstone (facies 1C) and the trough cross-stratified sandstone (facies 1D) (see Table 3). All the facies types are characterized by a very coarse-grained immature nature with an abundance of pebbles. Facies types mostly conform to large channel geometries with occasional sharp erosional basal contacts. The sediment fill pattern in individual channel geometries depicts an abundance of pebbles near the basal part often associated with large trough cross-strata, changing to smaller trough cross-strata in coarse-grained sandstone in the upper part. Overall facies architecture of FA-1 indicates a channel-fill facies association where sedimentation took place as channel-filling basal lag to point bar in a low-sinuosity meandering stream of relatively high energy.

The facies association FA-2 (Table 4; Fig. 3) is characterized by relatively fine-grained rocks. It is consisted of interbedded sandstone–mudstone (facies 2A) and plane-laminated sandstone (facies 2B). The facies types are characterized by an overall sheet-like geometry with alternations of thin-bedded, plane-laminated to ripple cross-stratified sandstone grading to mudstone. Such geometry and the close association of this facies association with channel-fill facies association (FA-1) indicate deposition of FA-2 sediments in overbank areas of channels.

The facies types in the facies association FA-3 (Table 5; Fig. 4) include the large-scale trough cross-stratified sandstone (facies 3A) and the planar cross-stratified sandstone (facies 3B), which characteristically bear mud-draped foresets, and lateral accretion of ripple cross-sets with reactivation surfaces within channel-fill cross-stratified sandstone beds. Such signatures indicate tidal influence (Bhattacharya et al. 2015, 2018) within a fluvial-dominated fluvio-tidal depositional setting.

The facies association FA-4 (Table 6; Fig. 5) consists of five different facies types, namely, the heterolithic sandstone–mudstone (facies 4A), the mud-clast-bearing conglomerate (facies 4B), the plane-laminated sandstone (facies 4C), the bioturbated sandstone (facies 4D) and the green sandstone (facies 4E). Abundant bi-directional ripple and climbing ripple cross-strata with mud-draped foresets, presence of glauconite in sandstone, trough cross-strata in sandstone with abundant mud, and an abundance of marine invertebrate trace fossils, etc. all indicate a strong tidal control within the fluvial system during the sedimentation of the tide-dominated fluvio-tidal facies association (FA-4).

The facies association FA-5 (Table 7; Fig. 6) is represented by the fossil-bearing sandstone (facies 5A), the ThalassinoidesOphiomorpha-bearing thinly-laminated sandstone–mudstone (facies 5B), the wave-ripple-bearing sandstone (facies 5C) and the massive mudstone (facies 5D). The abundance of symmetrical wave ripples, presence of marine invertebrate fossils and trace fossils, and the prevalence of both sand and mud are the characteristics of this facies association, which together indicate a significant amount of wave influence during deposition of the shoreface facies association (FA-5).

Detailed vertical sedimentary logs, showing the occurrence of facies types and facies associations in the 15 sections, from the western, central, and eastern parts of the study area are presented in Figs. 7, 8 and 9, respectively. These logs reveal that —

  1. i)

    the lower part of the succession is mostly comprised of immature sediments of FA-1and FA-2, and is overlain by

  2. ii)

    sediments of the fluvial-dominated fluvio-tidal facies association (FA-3), gradually changing vertically and laterally into sediments of the tide-dominated fluvio-tidal facies association (FA-4), commonly occupying the middle part of the succession and, finally,

  3. iii)

    sediments of the shoreface facies association (FA-5) predominate along with tide-dominated facies associations (mostly FA-4) in the upper part of the succession.

Fig. 7
figure7

Lithologs from the western part of the study area (sections 1–5) showing lateral and vertical distribution of various facies types and their associations. For section locations see Fig. 1. Legend is the same for Figs. 7, 8 and 9

Fig. 8
figure8

Lithologs from the central part of the study area (sections 6–11) showing lateral and vertical distribution of various facies types and their associations. For section locations see Fig. 1; for legend see Fig. 7

Fig. 9
figure9

Lithologs from the eastern part of the study area (sections 12–15) showing lateral and vertical distribution of various facies types and their associations. For section locations see Fig. 1; for legend see Fig. 7

At different stratigraphic levels in the middle part of the studied succession, layers with various soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS), e.g., convoluted laminae, pseudo-nodules, load and flame structures, syn-sedimentary faults, slumps, and sand dykes, have been recorded by Jha et al. (2017).

Alternate fluvial (FA-1 and FA-2) and fluvial-dominated tidally-influenced sediments (FA-3) followed by tide-dominated wave-reworked sediments (FA-4 and FA-5) constitute distinct depositional cycles within a mixed fluvio-marine depositional setting. Cyclic occurrences of the tidally-influenced sediments of FA-4, overlain by the wave-dominated sediments of FA-5 in the middle–upper part of the succession indicate repeated changes in water-depth over short intervals under a tidal to wave interactive system as a product of periodic marine inundations and intercalations. Such repetitive fining-up cycles indicate the inundation of fluvio-tidal channels by marine waters within a typical estuarine setting (Nichols 2009). In the study area, overall dominance of tidal features over wave features points to a tide-dominated wave-influenced estuary (Jha et al. 2017).

The overall fining-up character, increasing marine dominance up-section, and prevalence of landward palaeocurrent directions indicate an estuarine setting. Within the fluvio-marine interactive setting, three major sub-environments are envisaged:

  1. i)

    A fluvial-dominated zone initially, with the transition from fluvial channels (FA-1) to floodplain (FA-2), with few tide-affected fluvial deposits (FA-3) in the basal part of the succession, mainly prevails in the eastern and central part of the study area.

  2. ii)

    A mixed-energy central estuary zone in the middle–upper part of the succession, which consists of transitional fluvio-tidal channels (FA-3) and tidal flats associated with tidal channels and bars (FA-4) overlying the fluvial systems in the study area.

  3. iii)

    A wave-dominated shore environment in the outer estuary zone (top part of FA-4 with FA-5), occupying the upper part of the succession, occurs dominantly in the west and central part and gradually diminishes towards the eastern part of the study area.

The distinct layers with abundant SSDS have been interpreted as seismites by Jha et al. (2017). The seismite layers mark phases of a substantial shift in depositional conditions from fluvial-dominated to a transgressive tidal- and wave-influenced estuarine system related to basinal subsidence caused by reactivation of the Son-Narmada South Fault during sedimentation of the Nimar Sandstone Formation (Jha et al. 2017).

Stratal stacking patterns and T–R cycles

Vertical and lateral distributions of the litho-units depict an overall fining-upward retrogradational cycle for the entire Nimar Sandstone Formation. Four section correlations are made: (i) in the Akhara–Phata area, the westernmost of the basin, incorporating sections 1–5 (Fig. 10); (ii) in the Bagh area, the central of the basin, incorporating sections 6–11 (Fig. 11); (iii) in the Man River–Ratitalai area, the easternmost of the study area, including sections 12–15 (Fig. 12); and (iv) along a nearly dip-parallel section over the whole study area (Fig. 13), incorporating, from west to east, logs of Chikapoti, Akhara, Bagh, Raisinghpura, and Sitapuri. The correlations provide clear evidence of stratal stacking patterns along the length (W–E) and width (N–S) of the basin, and reflect the dominance of marine-influenced facies types in the western logs in comparison to the easternmost ones. Similarly, a gradual diminishing abundance of channel-fill facies types (mostly FA-1) is observed from east to west in the study area. Within the overall fining-up trend, high-frequency alternate coarsening-up (progradational) and fining-up (retrogradational) hemicycles a are visible in almost all the lithologs (Figs. 10, 11, 12 and 13).

Fig. 10
figure10

Correlation of lithologs in the western part of the study area (see Fig. 1 for location), showing transgressive–regressive (T–R) cycles of different orders. U-C: Upper coarsening-up hemicycle; U-F: Upper fining-up hemicycle; L-C: Lowermost coarsening-up hemicycle; L-F: Lower finning-up hemicycle. Legends are the same for Figs. 10, 11, 12 and 13

Fig. 11
figure11

Correlation of lithologs in the central part of the study area (see Fig. 1 for location), showing different-order T–R cycles. For abbreviations see Fig. 10

Fig. 12
figure12

Correlation of lithologs in the eastern part of the study area (see Fig. 1 for location), showing different-order T–R cycles. For abbreviations see Fig. 10

Fig. 13
figure13

Correlation of lithologs along a dip section from west to east of the study area (see Fig. 1 for location), showing different-order T–R cycles. For abbreviations see Fig. 10

The overall retrogradational pattern with the gradual changeover from dominant fluvial systems in the lower part, followed by mixed fluvial-tidal systems in the middle part and mixed tidal- and wave-dominated open marine systems in the upper part of the studied succession points to the overall transgressive nature of the succession. The transgressive succession is also evident from the systematic change in abundance of fluvial to marine facies from east to west, which signifies a west- to eastward marine incursion controlling the sedimentation at different areas. The smaller coarsening- and fining-up hemicycles embedded within this major transgressive cycle manifest high-frequency changes in base level and accommodation.

The Nimar Sandstone Formation is conformably overlain by the Nodular Limestone Formation without any visible break in sedimentation. The Nodular Limestone Formation has been interpreted as a restricted shallow marine platform–tidal flat deposit (Ruidas et al. 2018; Bansal et al. 2019). Thus, it remains inconclusive at this stage whether the major transgressive event that affected the entire Nimar Sandstone Formation succession also continued during the deposition of the overlying limestone units.

High-frequency T–R cycles

Four distinct high-frequency hemicycles (Figs. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15) are observed within the major transgressive cycle: (i) the lowermost coarsening-up hemicycle (named as L-C), followed up by (ii) a fining-up hemicycle (named as L-F) in the lower–middle part of the succession, (iii) another coarsening-up hemicycle (named as U-C) in the middle–upper part of the succession, and (iv) an upper fining-up hemicycle (named as U-F) occurring near the top of the entire succession.

Fig. 14
figure14

A representative field section beside the Baghini Temple, near Bagh, showing four transgressive–regressive hemicycles (marked by L-C, L-F, U-C and U-F). The person (encircled) is 172 cm tall. For key of abbreviations, see Fig. 10

Fig. 15
figure15

Conceptual sequence stratigraphic model of the Nimar Sandstone Formation along a west–east transect through the study area, showing stratal stacking patterns with four high-frequency coarsening-up and fining-up hemicycles embedded in a major fining-up transgressive succession. Abbreviations see Fig. 10. HAST: High-amalgamation systems tract; LAST: Low-amalgamation systems tract; LST: Lowstand systems tract; TST: Transgressive systems tract

The lowermost coarsening-up (progradational) hemicycle (L-C) is most prevalent in the central and eastern part of the area (Figs. 11, 12) and depict a stratal stacking pattern formed by the lateral and vertical amalgamation of channel-fill deposits (FA-1), intermittently separated by overbank deposits (FA-2). Overall, FA-1 sediments are much more abundant than FA-2 sediments.

A fining-up (retrogradational) hemicycle (L-F) commonly overlies the L-C hemicycle and occupies the lower to middle part of the succession in the central and eastern parts of the study area (Figs. 11, 12 and 13). However, in the western part, the L-C hemicycle is absent and the succession starts with the L-F hemicycle (Fig. 10). This fining-up succession shows a stratal stacking pattern formed predominantly by overbank deposits (FA-2) with isolated, detached units of channel-fill sediments (FA-1). Overall, the overbank deposits are more abundant than the channel-fill sediments within this hemicycle.

Both L-C and L-F are overlain by another coarsening-up (progradational) hemicycle (U-C), mostly occupying the middle to upper part of the succession. The stratal architecture within this hemicycle depicts a progradational stacking pattern with successively stacked fluvial-dominated fluvio-tidal deposits (FA-3) and intermittent finer-grained tide-dominated fluvio-tidal deposits (FA-4) (Fig. 15). Both the channel and the overbank deposits are characterized by abundant tidal signatures. Preserved tidal signatures help to differentiate this hemicycle from earlier hemicycles apart from the change in stacking pattern from fining-up below to coarsening-up above. The coarsening-up stacking pattern is produced by the local amalgamation of tide-affected fluvial channels in the middle and upper part of the U-C hemicycle.

The topmost fining-up hemicycle (U-F) caps the earlier hemicycles throughout the entire area. A fining-up, retrogradational stratal stacking pattern is observed with an abundance of FA-4 facies types accompanied by FA-5 facies types. Marine depositional signatures are most prevalent within this hemicycle in comparison to all other hemicycles, which include sheet sandstone bodies with abundant wave-produced features, heterolithic units with shallow-marine invertebrate fossils and trace fossils, and thick- to thin-bedded tidal heteroliths. Evidence of fluvial sedimentary processes in terms of facies types of FA-1, FA-2 or FA-3 are lacking or absent within this hemicycle. The thickness of the sediment package of U-F also varies significantly, with maximum thickness and sand-rich composition in the western part, and a gradually diminishing thickness and change to a mud-rich composition towards the east. This hemicycle is directly overlain by the Nodular Limestone Formation.

Discussion

Interpretation of the high-frequency T–R cycles

The lowermost coarsening-upward hemicycle (L-C), characterized by highly amalgamated channel-fill units and a high channel/overbank sediment ratio, signifies deposition in unconfined fluvial channels without any connection to marine processes. Lateral and vertical shifts in channel stacking pattern and amalgamation indicate frequent channel avulsion with a significantly low rate of aggradation of overbank deposits. The overall stratal stacking pattern points to a high-amalgamation systems tract (HAST) developed in a low-accommodation, upstream-controlled fluvial depositional system (Catuneanu 2017).

The overlying fining-up hemicycle (L-F), characterized by stacking pattern dominated by overbank deposits and a low channel/overbank sediment ratio, signifies deposition in confined isolated channels with a low rate of channel avulsion or migration and a high rate of overbank aggradation. Such a stratal stacking pattern is identified as a low-amalgamation systems tract (LAST) (Catuneanu 2017), indicating high accommodation due to basinal subsidence and raised river profile leading to flooding and deposition of finer overbank deposits over the earlier sand-depositing areas. This led to a fining-up retrogradational succession (FA-2 over FA-1) in most areas. The predominance of mud-rich floodplain deposits manifests rising base level conditions, leading to: (i) raising of the river profile, (ii) more deposition than the incision, and (iii) low channel avulsion and aggradation. Such rising of the base level can be considered as an indirect effect of the rising and encroaching sea, which was not far away. Close overlap of this hemicycle by the overlying tide-dominated facies association supports this interpretation.

The stratal stacking pattern and the associated facies architecture in the overlying hemicycles (U-C and U-F) indicate clear signatures of marine influence. Thus, a shift in the depositional conditions from an upstream-controlled fluvial setting to a downstream-controlled, marine-influenced transitional setting can be envisaged at the boundary of the L-F hemicycle and the U-C hemicycle. Significant marine influence, in association with basinal tectonics and sediment supply controlled the creation of net accommodation and the resultant stratal stacking patterns. SSDS-bearing beds both above and below the said transition are interpreted as seismites (Jha et al. 2017), which signifies strong control of the basinal tectonism caused by reactivation of faults and basinal sagging in controlling the accommodation and sedimentation (Bhattacharya et al. 2016; Bhattacharya and Saha 2020).

The overlying coarsening-up hemicycle (U-C) in the middle to upper part of the succession, characterized by low to high tidal influence, shows a stacking pattern dominated by tide-reworked channel and overbank deposits (FA-3 and FA-4). Additional accommodation was available, as evident from high-accumulation of the tide-affected overbank deposits (FA-4) and low to high amalgamation of tide-influenced channels (FA-3). This net accommodation creation was controlled by a rising base level and landward encroaching sea, which was overpaced by a high rate of sedimentation led by both fluvial and tidal systems. The overall progradational stratal stacking pattern with less aggradation indicates a regressive condition, equivalent to a lowstand systems tract (LST) in the fluvio-marine transitional setting. In some areas (e.g., Bagh, Rampura, etc., Figs. 11, 13), particularly in places where the fluvial channels were strongly affected by tidal currents during this marine encroachment, tidally reworked coarser-grained clastics led to stacked, amalgamated thick channel-fill sandstone units (of FA-3). Such progradational stacking pattern confirms a lowstand condition, where a significant amount of sediment supplied by river was reworked by the encroaching tidal currents and was deposited as bay-head deltas and tidal bars in river mouth areas.

The lowstand stratal package is overlain by the topmost fining-up hemicycle (U-F) with a retrogradational stratal stacking pattern formed by predominantly tide- and wave-produced sediments of FA-4 and FA-5 (Figs. 10, 11, 12 and 13). The prevalence of wave- and tide-controlled sedimentation with a low or rare signature of fluvial deposition suggests a coastal onlapping, which covered the earlier fluvial (HAST and LAST) and the fluvio-tidal (LST) deposits. A clear shift from pure fluvial depositional processes to open coastal depositional systems in different parts of the basin (Figs. 10, 11, 12 and 13) undoubtedly attests to a landward shift of the shoreline. Thus, the fining-up retrogradational stratal package in U-F represents a transgressive systems tract (TST). Minor variations in the stacking pattern within this TST in different areas are caused by varying water energy in different parts of the basin during the marine flooding event, which led to varied depositions from (i) wave-reworked shoreface sands with marine bivalves, gastropods, and trace fossils in the western part (more open marine), to (ii) finer-grained clastics with abundant Ostrea, Turritella and trace fossils (Thalassinoides) of marginal marine affinity, characteristic of brackish water conditions in the eastern part (landward, sheltered estuary-like). The contact with the overlying Nodular Limestone Formation (Fig. 14) is considered as the end of transgression documented by the Nimar Sandstone Formation succession; however, demarcating any definite surface (e.g., the maximum flooding surface) is not feasible due to the relatively poor preservation of features in outcrops and restricted lateral continuity of features.

Sequence stratigraphic architecture

In absence of absolute age data of the Nimar Sandstone Formation (as mentioned in Table 2), the chronological attributes of bounding surfaces and major events become problematic in the study area. The major transgressive cycle encompassing the entire Nimar Sandstone Formation succession definitely indicates a transgression. Since the lower contact of the Nimar Sandstone Formation is fault-bound, the actual starting age of the deposition is difficult to determine. The top boundary with the overlying Nodular Limestone Formation is conformable and indicates inland continuation of marine sedimentation. Thus, we may consider the major fining-up cycle in the Nimar Sandstone Formation as part of a major, continuous transgressive event. So, assigning the proper status of this major transgressive cycle in terms of sequence elements (sequence or systems tracts) is tricky and is avoided here.

The high-frequency T–R cycles resemble different systems tracts, viz., L-C as HAST, L-F as LAST, U-C as LST, and U-F as TST, depending on characteristic stratal stacking patterns with assemblages of different facies associations (discussed earlier). Nature of the transition between the HAST and the LAST is gradual, rendering no definite bounding surface between them in field exposures. The changeover from the LAST and the overlying LST is commonly marked by initiation of tidal influence within the channel deposits and the progradation of these channel systems over the underlying overbank deposits. Sharp channel bases are locally identified in individual exposures, but poor preservation quality with lack of lateral continuity restricts the identification of a definite bounding surface between the LAST and the LST. Similarly, the changeover from LST to the topmost TST is not marked by any distinct surface such as the maximum regressive surface (MRS) and is mostly identified by the gradual change in the stratal stacking pattern from coarsening-up (U-C) to fining-up (U-F). The facies architecture near the upper boundary of the TST is not uniform throughout the sections and, in turn, makes it difficult to demarcate a definite terminating surface such as the maximum flooding surface (MFS). However, the Nodular Limestone Formation overlies this topmost TST throughout the study area, and definitely indicates the culmination of the transgressive event within the Nimar Sandstone Formation succession. Such variations in the facies architecture, causing difficulty in lateral correlation and identification of bounding surfaces of the sequence/systems tracts are due to the complex sedimentary facies distribution in the evolving fluvio-estuarine system within the riftogenic basin.

Palaeogeography

The Late Cretaceous global sea-level rise led to significant marine transgressions that affected part of western and central India (Acharya and Lahiri 1991; Singh and Mishra 2000; Desai 2013). This led to seawater inundation of large areas of central Indian land, resulting in a shift in depositional conditions from pure continental to marine/marginal marine. One such example of marine transgressions and change in depositional conditions is well recorded in the Upper Cretaceous Bagh Group, preserved within the Narmada rift basin.

Analysis of the Nimar Sandstone Formation succession in the light of transgressive–regressive cycles reveals a major transgressive event affecting the upper part of the succession. The initial fluvial system depicts an amalgamation of channel and overbank deposits under low-to-high accommodation conditions, mostly controlled by changing river equilibrium profile due to tectonic subsidence and varied sediment supply. This caused thick accumulation of channel-fill and overbank deposits in the lower part of the Nimar Sandstone Formation. An east–west flowing river system is reconstructed, with coarse sediments dominating in the east and fine sediments in the west. In the western part of the basin, the fluvial system was affected by tidal intermixing, indicating a significant marine encroachment and fluvio-tidal interference (Fig. 16). The effect of tidal influence is more pronounced in the upper transgressive hemicycle (U-C), which records prevalent drowning of the underlying fluvial system. The effect of this drowning was more dominant in the western part and less in the eastern part, indicating that the marine encroachment took place from west to east with the development of a tide-influenced estuarine system in the west changing to more fluvial-dominated bay-head delta systems in the east. Overall facies architecture indicates that an initial fluvial depositional setting was engulfed by the development of a tide-influenced estuarine system (Fig. 16), where three distinct depositional zones can be deciphered, namely,

Fig. 16
figure16

Schematic 3D palaeogeographic model of the deposition of Nimar Sandstone Formation in the Narmada rift basin

i) a fluvio-tidal interactive inner estuary zone, developed in the eastern part of the basin, characterized by the tide-reworked thick channel-fill and overbank deposits,

ii) a tide-dominated central estuary zone, developed in the central part of the basin, characterized by development of tidal sand bars and sand- and mud-flats based on the extent of inundations, mutual strength of tidal and fluvial systems, and type of net accommodation created, and.

iii) a tidal- and wave-dominated outer estuary part, developed in the western part of the basin, characterized by more open marine tide- and wave-reworked sediments of shore environments.

Successive stacking of high-frequency transgressive–regressive cycles was caused by fluctuations in the base level in response to the Cenomanian sea-level rise along with net sedimentation controlled by the basinal subsidence caused by reactivation of basin marginal faults in the Narmada rift basin (Jha et al. 2017). During the late stage of the transgression, outer estuarine open marine conditions encroached further landwards inundating the entire basin, which led to shallow, low-energy conditions with deposition of the Nodular Limestone Formation as an apron covering the underlying Nimar Sandstone Formation. Thus, the shift in depositional conditions from fluvial-dominated to a transgressive tidal- to wave-influenced estuarine system attests to significant tectono-sedimentary changes accompanied by prolonged events of marine transgressions in the Narmada rift basin during the Late Cretaceous.

Conclusions

The detailed facies analysis and sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Cenomanian Nimar Sandstone Formation helps to sort out the facies architecture in the fluvio-marine interactive estuarine system. Based on the present study, we can frame the following conclusive remarks:

  1. 1)

    Detailed facies analysis records deposition of the lower part of the succession in a fluvial setting, which changed up-section into a transgressive fluvio-marine estuarine setting with: (i) a fluvial-dominated inner estuary zone, with the transition from fluvial to tide-affected fluvial deposits, (ii) a transitional central estuary zone consisting of transitional fluvio-tidal channels and tidal flats, associated with tidal channels and bars, and (iii) a wave-dominated shallow-marine outer estuary zone. This evolution is time-transgressive with a gradual shift of different depositional conditions in space and time.

  2. 2)

    Reactivation of basin-marginal faults during the Cenomanian time caused sequential subsidence of the land part within the Indian Plate, which enhanced the effective landward incursion of seawater due to the Cenomanian sea-level rise.

  3. 3)

    The major transgression is attributed to the Cenomanian global eustatic rise, whereas the high-frequency T–R cycles indicate systematic variation in net sediment supply, change in accommodation space related to tectonic subsidence, and base level fluctuations, resulting in characteristic stratal stacking patterns.

  4. 4)

    The proposed tectono-sedimentary model based on the integrated sedimentological–sequence-stratigraphic study helps to reconstruct the palaeogeography in central India during the Late Cretaceous. Such a palaeogeographic model can be applied to similar transgressive fluvio-marine sedimentary successions formed in passive margin rift basins, where transgression is controlled by both eustatic changes and tectonic subsidence.

Availability of data and materials

The authors declare that the materials are available in open field area to be accessed by anyone. All data are collected by the authors themselves through fieldwork followed by laboratory analysis, and nothing has been supplied by any person or organization.

Abbreviations

HAST:

High-amalgamation systems tract

IHS:

Inclined heterolithic strata

LAST:

Low-amalgamation systems tract

LST:

Lowstand systems tract

MFS:

Maximum flooding surface

MRS:

Maximum regressive surface

SSDS:

Soft-sediment deformation structures

T–R cycles:

Transgressive–regressive cycles

TST:

Transgressive systems tract

References

  1. Acharya, S.K., and T.C. Lahiri. 1991. Cretaceous palaeogeography of Indian subcontinent: A review. Cretaceous Research 12: 3–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Badve, R.M., and M.A. Ghare. 1980. Ichnofauna of the Bagh beds from Deva river valley, south of Narmada. Biovigyanam 6: 121–130.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Banerjee, S., P. Ghosh, R. Nagendra, B. Bhattacharya, B.G. Desai, and A.K. Srivastava. 2020. Marine and fluvial sedimentation including erosion and sediment flux in peninsular Indian Phanerozoic basins. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy 86 (1): 351–363.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bansal, U., S. Banerjee, K. Pande, and D.K. Das. 2019. Unusual seawater composition of the late cretaceous Tethys imprinted in glauconite of Narmada basin, Central India. Geological Magazine 157 (2): 233–247.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Best, J.L., and R.A. Kostaschuk. 2002. An experimental study of turbulent flow over a low angle dune. Journal of Geophysical Research 107 (C9): 31–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bhattacharya, B., S. Bandyopadhyay, S. Mahapatra, and S. Banerjee. 2012. Record of tide-wave influence on the coal-bearing Permian Barakar formation, Raniganj Basin, India. Sedimentary Geology 267–268: 25–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bhattacharya, B., and P.P. Banerjee. 2015. Record of Permian Tethyan transgression in eastern India: A reappraisal of the barren measures formation, west Bokaro coalfield. Marine and Petroleum Geology 67: 170–179.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bhattacharya, B., J. Bhattacharjee, S. Banerjee, S. Bandyopadhyay, and R. Das. 2016. Seismites in Permian Barakar formation, Raniganj Basin, India: Implications on lower Gondwana basin evolution. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 9 (4): 300. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-016-2318-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bhattacharya, B., J. Bhattacharjee, S. Banerjee, S. Banerjee, and K. Adhikary. 2018. Early Permian transgressive-regressive cycles: Sequence stratigraphic reappraisal of the coal-bearing Barakar formation, Raniganj Basin, India. Journal of Earth System Science 127: 1–29.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Bhattacharya, B., and H.N. Bhattacharya. 2012. Implications of mud-clast conglomerates within late Paleozoic Talchir glaciomarine succession, Talchir Gondwana Basin, India. Indian Journal of Geosciences 66 (1): 69–78.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Bhattacharya, B., and S. Jha. 2014. Late cretaceous diurnal tidal system: A study from Nimar sandstone, Bagh group, Narmada Valley, Central India. Current Science 107 (6): 1032–1037.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Bhattacharya, B., and A. Saha. 2020. Large soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) in the Permian barren measures formation, Pranhita-Godavari Valley, India: Potential link to syn-rift palaeoearthquake events. Journal of Palaeogeography 9 (1): 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42501-020-00063-z.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Bhattacharya, H.N., and B. Bhattacharya. 2015. Lithofacies architecture and palaeogeography of the late Paleozoic glaciomarine Talchir formation, Raniganj Basin, India. Journal of Palaeogeography 4 (3): 269–283.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Bhattacharya, H.N., B. Bhattacharya, A. Roy, and S. Pal. 2015. Late Archaean tidalites from western margin of Chitradurga greenstone belt, southern India. Precambrian Research 257: 109–113.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Boersma, J.R., and J.H.J. Terwindt. 1981. Neap-spring tide sequences of intertidal shoal deposits in a mesotidal estuary. Sedimentology 28 (2): 151–170.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Bose, P.K., and N.G. Das. 1986. A transgressive storm- and fair-weather wave dominated shelf sequence: Cretaceous Nimar formation, Chakrud, Madhya Pradesh, India. Sedimentary Geology 46 (1–2): 147–167.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Buatois, L., and M.G. Mángano. 2011. Ichnology: Organism-substrate interactions in space and time. Geology Magazine 149 (4): 750.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Catuneanu, O. 2017. Sequence stratigraphy: Guidelines for a standard methodology. In Stratigraphy and Timescales, vol. 2, 1–57. Elsevier, Oxford, UK.

  19. Chiplonkar, G.W. 1974. Some unresolved aspects of the Bagh beds and Wadhwan formation (presidential address, seminar on Indian geology). Publication Center for Advance Study in Geology Chandigarh 11: 1A–10A.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Chiplonkar, G.W., and R.M. Badve. 1973. Age and affinities of the Bagh fauna — A reassessment. Bulletin of the Indian National Science Academy 45: 19–29.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Chiplonkar, G.W., and M.A. Ghare. 1975. Some additional trace fossils from the Bagh beds. Bulletin of the Indian Geological Association 8 (1): 71–84.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Choi, K.S. 2010. Rhythmic climbing-ripple cross-lamination in inclined heterolithic stratification (IHS) of a macrotidal estuarine channel, Gomso Bay, west coast of Korea. Journal of Sedimentary Research 80 (6): 550–561.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Choi, K.S., R.W. Dalrymple, S.S. Chun, and S. Kim. 2004. Sedimentology of modern, inclined heterolithic stratification (IHS) in the macrotidal Han River delta, Korea. Journal of Sedimentary Research 74 (5): 677–689.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Dalrymple, R.W., and K.S. Choi. 2007. Morphologic and facies trends through the fluvial–marine transition in tide-dominated depositional systems: A schematic framework for environmental and sequence-stratigraphic interpretation. Earth-Science Reviews 81 (3–4): 135–174.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Dalrymple, R.W., B.A. Zaitlin, and R. Boyd. 1992. Estuarine facies models: Conceptual basis and stratigraphic implications. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 62 (6): 1130–1146.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Desai, B.G. 2013. Ichnological analysis of transgressive marine tongue in prograding deltaic system: Evidences from Ukra Hill member, Western Kachchh, India. Journal of the Geological Society of India 82 (2): 143–152.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Eide, C.H., J.A. Howell, S.J. Buckley, A.W. Martinius, B.T. Oftedal, and G.A. Henstra. 2016. Facies model for a coarse-grained, tide-influenced delta: Gule horn formation (early Jurassic), Jameson land, Greenland. Sedimentology 63 (6): 1474–1506.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Elliott, T. 1986. Siliciclastic shorelines. In Sedimentary environments and Facies, ed. H.G. Reading, 155–188. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Förster, R., R. Meyer, and H. Risch. 1983. Ammoniten and planktonische Foraminiferen aus den Eibrunner Mergeln (Regensburger Kreide, Nordostbayern). Zitteliana 10: 123–141.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Gale, A.S., J. Hardenbol, B. Hathway, W.J. Kennedy, J.R. Young, and V. Phansalkar. 2002. Global correlation of Cenomanian (upper cretaceous) sequences: Evidence for Milankovitch control on sea level. Geology 30 (4): 291–294.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Ganguly, T., and S. Bardhan. 1993. Dimorphism in Placenticeras mintoi from the upper cretaceous Bagh beds, Central India. Cretaceous Research 14 (6): 747–756.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Greb, S.F., and R.L. Martino. 2005. Fluvial–estuarine transitions in fluvial-dominated succession: Examples from the lower Pennsylvanian of the central Appalachian Basin. Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists 35: 425–451.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Gugliotta, M., Y. Saito, V.L. Nguyen, T.K.O. Ta, and T. Tamura. 2019. Sediment distribution and depositional processes along the fluvial to marine transition zone of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. Sedimentology 66 (1): 146–164.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Hallam, A. 1992. Phanerozoic Sea-level changes. New York: Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Hancock, J.M., and E.G. Kauffman. 1979. The great transgressions of the late cretaceous. Journal of the Geological Society 136 (2): 175–186.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Haq, B.U. 2014. Cretaceous eustasy revisited. Global and Planetary Change 113: 44–58.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Haq, B.U., J. Hardenbol, and P.R. Vail. 1987. Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic. Science 235: 1156–1167.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Harms, J.C., J.B. Southard, D.R. Spearing, and R.G. Walker. 1975. Depositional environments as interpreted from primary sedimentary structures and stratification sequences: Tulsa, Oklahoma. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists (SEPM) Short Course 2: 161.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Harms, J.C., J.B. Southard, and R.G. Walker. 1982. Structures and Sequences in Clastic Rocks. SEPM Short Course No. 9. S.E.P.M., Tulsa, Okla., 851 pp. 

  40. Hilbrecht, H., M.A. Arthur, and S.O. Schlanger. 1986. The Cenomanian Turonian boundary event: Sedimentary, faunal and geochemical criteria developed from stratigraphic studies in NW-Germany. In: Global Bio-Events, ed. O. Walliser. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences 8: 345–351.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Jafar, S.A. 1982. Nannoplankton evidence of Turonian transgression along Narmada Valley, India, and Turonian–Coniacian boundary problem. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 27: 17–30.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Jaiswal, S., B. Bhattacharya, and S. Chakrabarty. 2018. High resolution sequence stratigraphy of middle Eocene Hazad member, Jambusar-broach block, Cambay Basin, India. Marine and Petroleum Geology 93: 79–94.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Jaitly, A.K., and R. Ajane. 2013. Comments on Placenticeras mintoi (Vredenburg, 1906) from the Bagh beds (late cretaceous), Central India with special reference to Turonian nodular limestone horizon. Journal of the Geological Society of India 81 (4): 565–574.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Jha, S., B. Bhattacharya, and S. Nandwani. 2017. Significance of seismites in the late cretaceous transgressive Nimar sandstone succession, son-Narmada rift valley, Central India. Geological Journal 52 (5): 768–783.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Khosla, A., V.V. Kapur, P.C. Sereno, J.A. Wilson, G.P. Wilson, D. Dutheil, A. Sahni, M.P. Singh, S. Kumar, and R.S. Rana. 2003. First dinosaur remains from the Cenomanian–Turonian Nimar sandstone (Bagh beds), district Dhar, Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 48: 115–127.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Khosla, A., and A. Sahni. 2000. Late cretaceous (Maastrichtian) ostracodes from the Lameta formation, Jabalpur cantonment area, Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 45: 57–78.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Klein, G.D. 1971. A sedimentary model for determining paleotidal range. GSA Bulletin 82: 2585–2592.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Kumar, P. 1994. Palynology of carbonaceous clays of the Nimar formation, Jhabua district, Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of the Geological Society of India 44: 671–674.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Kundal, P., and B.N. Sanganwar. 1998. Stratigraphical, palaeogeographical and palaeoenvironmental significance of fossil calcareous algae from Nimar sandstone formation, Bagh group (Cenomanian–Turonian) of Pipaldehla, Jhabua Dt, MP. Current Science 75: 702–708.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Leopold, L.B., and M.G. Wolman. 1957. River Channel Patterns, Braided, Meandering and Straight, 282-B. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, Washington D.C.

  51. Malarkodi, N., S.J. Patel, P.J. Fayazudeen, and U.B. Mallikarjuna. 2009. Palaeoenvironmental significance of trace fossils from the Palaeocene sediments of the Pondicherry area, South India. Journal of the Geological Society of India 74 (6): 738–748.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Malaza, N., K. Liu, and B. Zhao. 2013. Facies analysis and depositional environments of the late Palaeozoic coal-bearing Madzaringwe formation in the Tshipise-Pafuri Basin, South Africa. ISRN Geology 11. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/120380.

  53. McGowen, J.H., and L.E. Garner. 1970. Physiographic features and stratification types of coarse-grained point bars: Modern and ancient examples. Sedimentology 14 (1–2): 77–111.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Miall, A.D. 1977. Lithofacies types and vertical profile models in braided river deposits: A summary. In Fluvial sedimentology, ed. A.D. Miall, 597–604. Calgary: Geological Survey of Canada.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Miall, A.D. 1982. Tertiary sedimentation and tectonics in the Judge Daly basin, Northeast Ellesmere Island Arctic Canada. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 80: 17–30.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Miall, A.D. 2006. The geology of fluvial deposits: Sedimentary Facies, analysis and petroleum geology. New York: Spring-Verlag.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  57. Miller, K.G., M.A. Kominz, J.V. Browning, J.D. Wright, G.S. Mountain, M.E. Katz, P.J. Sugarman, B.S. Cramer, N. Christie-Blick, and S.F. Pekar. 2005. The Phanerozoic record of global sea-level change. Science 310: 1293–1298.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Murty, K.N., B.G. Dhokarikar, and G.P. Verma. 1963. Plant fossils in Nimar sandstone near Umrali, M.P. Current Science 32 (1): 21–22.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Nagendra, R., B.V. Kamalak Kannan, G. Sen, H. Gilbert, D. Bakkiaraj, A. Nallapa Reddy, and B.C. Jaiprakash. 2011. Sequence surfaces and paleobathymetric trends in Albian to Maastrichtian sediments of Ariyalur area, Cauvery Basin, India. Marine and Petroleum Geology 28 (4): 895–905.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Nagendra, R., P. Sathiyamoorthy, S. Pattanayak, A. Nallapa Reddy, and B.C. Jaiprakash. 2013. Stratigraphy and paleobathymetric interpretation of the cretaceous Karai shale formation of Uttatur group, Tamil Nadu, India. Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation 21 (7): 675–688.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Nichols, G. 2009. Sedimentology and stratigraphy. London: Blackwell Science Ltd..

    Google Scholar 

  62. Paola, C., S.M. Wiele, and M.A. Reinhart. 1989. Upper-regime parallel lamination as the result of turbulent sediment transport and low-amplitude bed forms. Sedimentology 36 (1): 47–59.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Raiverman, V. 1975. Facies transition among Nimar, Bagh and Lameta beds. Recent Researches in Geology 2: 123–139.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Reineck, H.E., and I.B. Singh. 1980. Depositional Sedimentary Environments: With Reference to Terrigenous Clastics, 549. Berlin: Springer-Verlag 2nd Rev. and updated ed.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  65. Reineck, H.E., and F. Wunderlich. 1967. A new method to measure rate of deposition of single lamina on tidal flats and shelf bottoms. In 7th International Sedimentological Congress.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Reineck, H.E., and F. Wunderlich. 1969. Die Entstehung von Schichten und Schichtbänken im watt. Senckenbergiana Maritima 1: 85–106.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Richards, B.H., and J.P. Bhattacharya. 2018. Stratigraphy of the fluvial-to-marine transition zone associated with a forced-regressive compound incised-valley system in the Turonian Ferron Notom Delta, Utah, U.S.a. Journal of Sedimentary Research 88 (3): 311–326.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Röper, M., and M. Rothgaenger. 1995. Neue Fossilfunde aus der Regensburger Oberkreide. Teil 1: Eibrunner Mergel. Fossilien 3: 180–184.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Ruidas, D.K., S. Paul, and T.K. Gangopadhyay. 2018. A reappraisal of stratigraphy of Bagh group of rocks in Dhar District, Madhya Pradesh with an outline of origin of nodularity of nodular limestone formation. Journal of the Geological Society of India 92 (1): 19–26.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Sames, B., M. Wagreich, J.E. Wendler, B.U. Haq, C.P. Conrad, M.C. Melinte-Dobrinescu, X. Hu, I. Wendler, E. Wolfgring, I. Yilmaz, and S.O. Zorina. 2016. Review: Short-term sea-level changes in a greenhouse world — A view from the cretaceous. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 441 (Part 3): 393–411.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Sanganwar, B.N., and P. Kundal. 1997. Ichnofossils from Nimar sandstone formation, Bagh Group of Barwah area, Khargone district, Madhya Pradesh. Gondwana Geological Magazine 12 (1): 47–54.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Singh, D., and U.K. Mishra. 2000. Reconstruction of cretaceous basins of Meghalaya, India. Journal of Indian Association of Sedimentologists 19 (1): 59–68.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Singh, S.K., and H.K. Srivastava. 1981. Lithostratigraphy of Bagh beds and its correlation with Lameta beds. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 26: 77–85.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Skelton, P. 2003. The cretaceous world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Smith, A.B. 2010. The cretaceous Bagh formation, India: A Gondwanan window onto Turonian shallow-water echinoid faunas. Cretaceous Research 31 (4): 368–386.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Sundaram, R., R.A. Henderson, K. Ayyasami, and J.D. Stilwell. 2001. A lithostratigraphic revision and palaeoenvironmental assessment of the cretaceous system exposed in the onshore Cauvery Basin, southern India. Cretaceous Research 22 (6): 743–762.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Taylor, P.D., and R.M. Badve. 1995. A new cheilostome bryozoan from the cretaceous of India and Europe: A cyclostome homeomorph. Palaeontology 38 (3): 627–657.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Vail, P.R., F. Audemard, S.A. Bowman, P.N. Eisner, and C. Perez-Cruz. 1991. The stratigraphic signatures of tectonics, eustasy and sedimentology — An overview. In Cycles and Events in Stratigraphy, ed. G. Einsele, W. Ricken, and A. Seilacher, 617–659. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  79. van den Berg, J.H., J.R. Boersma, and A. van Gelder. 2007. Diagnostic sedimentary structures of the fluvial–tidal transition zone — Evidence from deposits of the Rhine and Meuse. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences — Geologie en Mijnbouw 86 (3): 287–306.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors like to thank IIT Roorkee for providing the research facilities. The authors gratefully acknowledge the thorough and critical reviews by two anonymous reviewers and the constructive comments of the editors of JoP.

Funding

Authors are thankful to the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India, for financial support in the form of Extra-Mural Research Project (Ref. No. MoES/P.O.(Geo)/142/2017).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

BB participated in the field work, identified and interpreted the primary sedimentary structures and the facies types, conceptualized the problem, completed the correlation of facies and facies associations in 2-D and 3-D, prepared the sequence stratigraphic models and drafted the manuscript. SJ has carried out the detailed descriptions of facies types, prepared the logs, participated in the field work and drafted the manuscript. PM has participated in the field, assisted in acquiring data and in lab analysis and drafted the manuscript. All the authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Biplab Bhattacharya.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of this article.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bhattacharya, B., Jha, S. & Mondal, P. Palaeogeographic reconstruction of a fluvio-marine transitional system in Narmada rift basin, India — Implications on Late Cretaceous global sea-level rise. J. Palaeogeogr. 9, 30 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s42501-020-00078-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Late Cretaceous
  • Fluvial-estuary transition
  • Nimar Sandstone Formation
  • Bagh Group
  • Narmada rift basin
  • Transgressive–regressive cycles
  • Global sea-level